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Сокращенный курс макроэкономической теории с использованием фундаментальных работ Зиновия Григорьевича Ватаманюка, Виктора Дмитриевича Базилевича, Валерия Александровича Васильева, Кемпбелла Р. Макконелла и Стенли Л. Брю


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Главная » Статьи » Информационное обеспечение дистанционного обучения » МАКРОЭКОНОМИКА/ ECONOMICS - лекции

Combined demand and combined supplies - 3 part

Large-sized structure of production inputs products of metallurgical combine «KrivorozhSteel» will have the following kind:

1.Charges on payment of past (materialized) labour 50%      - $ 1804   million,

2. Depreciation decrees                                          21,82%       - $ 786,9 millions

3.Ettlings                                                                 12,34%        - $ 445,5 millions,

4.Extra charges in social funds                      4,34%        - $ 178,2 millions,

5.Tax value-added                                                  4,61%         - $ 166,4 millions,

6.Other taxes                                                          1,04%          - $ 37,4 millions,

7.Income of enterprise                                            5,25%         - $ 189,6 millions,

Consequently as a result of activity of enterprise the consortium of Metall-Steel will get $ 853,3 millions in a year (786,9 + 189,6x0,7x0,5), that will provide recoupment of the made expenses for (4790 : (853,3x0,93)) 6,04 year.

On the average  term  of recoupment  of capital investments  in  a Wide World  economy  6,7  years  at a normative    coefficient    0,15.    The term    of recoupment    of realizable capital investments (the purchase of MC «KrivorozhSteel») of 6,04 is fully acceptable therefore. It is important to underline the considerable volume of profits which the Ukrainian state must get and which do not give to sleep quietly envious and to the very «aggressive» neighbors’ of Ukraine. By the way, even on part of these profits   all of these «eternal strategic partners» have no moral right, not to mention about the real legal rights.

So Ukraine will get as taxes:

            Income-tax (445,5 x 0,13)              $ 57,9 millions,

            Extra charges in social funds            $ 178,2 millions,

            Tax value-added                             $ 166,4 millions,

            Income tax (at a 30% norm)           $ 56,9 millions,

            Other taxes                                    $ 37,4 millions,

            Total                                                $ 496,8 millions


Exploitation of large industrial object an international corporation in Ukraine will have an exceptionally positive influence on the real increase of level of qualification of workers.

And it talks about perspective of development of global partnership Ukraine with international corporations in the name general development, arriving at AIMS of Millennium.

*          *          *

Example of methodology of Great British of Sir  William Petti

POLITICAL ARITHMETIC 1676 (self-controls)

Political  arithmetic


R e a s o n I n g s

in relation to sizes and cost of earth, people, structures, agriculture, manufactories, trade, fishing, artisans, sea-folk, soldiers; in relation to state profits, percents, taxes, methods of increase of profits, registration, banks; in relation to determination of value of people, increase of number of sea-folk; in relation to a militia, ports, position of country, ships, powers at the seaside etc. All of it is examined in attitude toward every country in general, but in more detail in regard to territories of his majesty of king of Great Britain and territories of his neighbors - Holland, Zelandia  and France.


In which proved, that a small country with a small in numbers population can by virtue of the position, trade and policy to be equivalent on riches and the  force by country with a considerably large population and territory and that favourable terms for a navigation and water-carriage assist an to it the most excellent and decisive appearance

I examine this first basic conclusion because of his length with   dividing into   three   parts.  The first   part   is taken to that a small country and small in numbers population can be equivalent on riches and force a country with a considerably large population and territory.         

This part of the first basic conclusion does not need large proofs, because  a 1   acre   of earth  at a difference in soil can bring so much grain and give food the same amount of cattle, how many 20 other acres; some plot of land from nature is so protected, that 100 persons, owning its, can reflect an attack 500 persons; bad earth can be improved and converted  into good;  a bog by drainage can be converted into a meadow; spaces, covered a heather, it is possible (as it is done in Flandreau) to adjust for sowing   of flax and clover, so that their cost will be increased in regard to 1 : 100; the same earth, being built-up, can bring rent in one hundred times excelling that which it brought as a pasture;   one man is more adroit or strong and more diligent to labour, what other;  one man through artificial adaptations can  execute  so much    work,   how many a lot of people is without them; for example, one man through a mill can mill so much grain, how many 20 persons can crush in a mortar; one printer can make so much copies, how many 100 persons can write from a hand; one horse can move so much load on wheels, how many 5 horse, on the own back, and in a boat or to over ice - so much, how many 20 horse. I repeat again: the first point   of this  general conclusion needs very little or does not quite need proofs. But second and more substantial part of this conclusion consists in that a difference between countries and people arises up mainly as a result of difference in their position, trade and policy.

To do clear this point, I will compare Holland and Zeland to the French kingdom. Holland and Zeland occupy the not more than 1 million English acres, while the French kingdom is occupied by over 80 million

Primary primitive distinction corresponds distinction in the sizes of earth, because it is scarcely possible to say that in a period, when these places were first exposed to treatment, the acre of earth in France had the best quality, what the same amount of earth in Holland and Zeland. There are not also no grounds to think that at the first settling of earths the number of the landed interests was proportional the area of earth; and it follows from this that if a population is not proportional the area of earth, it is explained position of country, and also trade and policy of people which settled down in this country.

The first position which must be proved consists in that Holland and Zeland make presently on the riches and force the eightieth not part of France, but attained already an one-third it or near that. It, I hope, will become clear in the total considerations of below resulted of information.

In respect of riches of France, the known card of this kingdom, published in 1647, considers his equal 15 million F. Str., from which 6 belonged to the church, thus the author of this card means only rent from earth. And the author of the most profound making about agriculture (suppose that He is a sir Richard Vaston) proved by the logical reasonings and on the examples from practice, that earths of Netherlands, if flax, turnip, clover, madder and others divorces on them, from one an acre will bring 10 F. Str. easily. Thus, territories of Holland and Zeland must bring, on his counts, at least 10 million F. Str.  annually. However much I think, that this profit was so great, and at France so small, as indicated higher; I suppose rather, that one number behaves to other approximately as 7 or 8:1.

The population of Amsterdam is equal to the one-third of population of Paris or London, thus a difference in the number of habitants of these two inhabited cities does not make the twentieth part, as it is shown by the bulletins of burials and births each of these cities (see Bulletins of death rate with 1670 for 1676). But a cost of structures is in Amsterdam, it is necessary to think, makes the not less than half of cost them in Paris from foundations, buttresses and bridges which in Amsterdam are more numerous and cost more expensive, than in Paris. Moreover, dwellings of the poorest people in Holland and Zeland in two and in three times better, than dwellings of the same people are in France. But because  a number of habitants of one country belongs to the number the habitants of other country only as 13 : 1, a cost of houses must be in regard to approximate 5:1.

I consider that from shipping of Europe, equal approximately 2 million  t,  England own 500 thousands  of t, Holland are 900 thousands, Frenches are 100 thousands, habitants   of Hamburg and citizens are Denmark,   Sweden  and Danciga are 250  thousands, Spain,   Portugal, Italy and others are 250 thousands  of t.   Thus, tonnages  of ships, interesting  us   countries - France and Holland - belong one to other approximately as 1 : 9. If to consider that every ton of large and small ships, old and new stands on the average  8 F. Str., a cost corresponds this number in 800 thousands F. Str. on one side and 7 200 thousands F. Str. - on other. The Holland’s capital in the East-Indian   company   exceeds   3   millions, while Frances have there still little or nothing is had.

Suppose that the cost of commodities, exported from France in all of parts of the world, is equal to the fourfold cost, that is exported in one only England, and, consequently, in general equal approximately 5 millions, while the cost  of commodities, exported from Holland to England, is equal 3 millions, and the cost of commodities, exported from Holland in everything country-World,  exceeds this number in six times.

Profit from taxes, annually raised King of France, as it is visible from devoted King of book, entitled; -« French State», published in 1669 and reprinted a government once or twice, equal 82 million French livrov, that makes about 6,5 million F. Str.  An author considers that fifth part of this sum must be subtracted from depreciation and insolvency, so that (as I suppose) indeed levied not over 5 million F. Str. Some persons assure that French King raised 11 millions, in other words fifth part  of the personal chattels of France. I assert modestly, that all of charges on a military fleet and on an army, and also on all of buildings and festivals, which, judging to on ears, took a place» in each of the last seven years, must not were demand: 6 millions I suppose therefore, that this more sum and it was not collected, in particular case taking into account that fifth part of taxes was not paid from insolvency, when a tax was so, high. But Holland and Zeland pay 67% tax,, paid all of the Incorporated provinces, and a city Amsterdam pays 27 from mentioned 67%. From follows here, that if Amsterdam is paid by 4 thousands of flemish pound in a day,  or about 1 400 thousand in a year, or 800 thousands of F. Str., all of Holland and Zeland paid 2 100 thousands F. Str.  in a year. Grounds, which I consider by virtue of, that they pay exactly so much, are such:

1.So   the author   of the «State of Netherlands» asserts  .

2. An excise on food stuffs in Amsterdam may be makes the more than half of acquisition their cost. For example, an excise on a flour makes 20 stayverov for a bushel, or are 63 gulden for Last (about 2 t.), on beer - 113 stayverov for a barrel, on houses - sixth of rent, on fruit - eighth part of their cost, on others things – sevens, eighth, ninth, twelfth part, on salt - ad libitum [size arbitrary]; from all of the weighed commodities a handsome sum is paid yet besides said. Began to be if the charges of habitants of Amsterdam made on the average, not counting an excise, 8 F. Str.   in a year, while in England they are equal 7 F. Str.  , and if the mentioned taxes are promoted by these charges on 5 F. Str., taking into account that there are 160 thousands of habitants in Amsterdam, it is necessary to suppose that there will be annually collected sum, equal 800 thousand of F. Str. 

3. Although the charges of every habitant are equal 13 F. Str.  in a year, however it is well known that in Amsterdam there are little such habitants, which would not have a profit, considerably exceeding this sum.

4.If Holland and Zeland pay 2 100 thousands F. Str.  annually, all of «Provinces», together, must pay 3 million F. Str.  Sum, less, than this, scarcely it would last the coverage of charges on the prosecution of marine war with England and on maintenance of army in 72 thousands of persons, not counting all of other ordinary charges of their government; charges on a church are here part of the government spending. I conclude: from its clear, that the sum of taxes, paid all of France, exceeds no more than in three times taxes, paid only Holland and Zeland.


5.The size of percent, paid on money loans, is equal in France 7, in Holland he barely makes the half  of this sum.


6.Territory of Holland and Zeland, which consists as though of islands, protected a sea, fleet and quagmire, can be defense  at charges in four   times less, than those which are required by defence of even and opened country, where war will be able to be conducted both in and summer winter. In Netherlands war can be conducted almost exceptionally in summer.


7.      But besides all of terms, considered until now, main attention must be spared exceeding of profit above charges. Because, however great a number of citizens of some sovereign was and as though good there was not his country, it must be considered poor, if whether because of lackadaisical attitude of or extraordinarily large charges, or oppression and injustice: this country outlays all of the profit similarly soon, as its turns out. And it is therefore necessary to consider, on what sum or, more faithful, how many paradise Holland and Zeland is rich now more, than they there were one hundred years back. The same we must find out and in relation to France. If will appear, - that France barely doubled the riches and force, and in Holland and Zeland they grew tenfold, I will give a preference the last, even if increase in nine tenth at one does not exceed an increase, equal to the half at other, because one country has supply on nine years, while other only on one year.


We conclude: from all of said clears that although France excels Holland and Zeland on the number of habitants in thirteen times, and on the amount of suitable earth - in eighty times, however much it means that it richer and stronger than them in thirteen, and the more so in eighty times; it richer and stronger than them no more than in three times, q.e.d..

                        (continuation in an appendix to the next lecture)

Источник: http://kumpan-muller.ucoz.de/publ/prilozhenie_k_lekcii_sovokupnyj_spros_i_sovokupnoe_predlozhenie_2
Категория: МАКРОЭКОНОМИКА/ ECONOMICS - лекции | Добавил: Vasiljev (2009-09-29) | Автор: Vasiljev Alexander
Просмотров: 945 | Теги: 8 millions -Taxes, Dr Valery Vasiljev, Total $ 496, combine «KrivorozhSteel» | Рейтинг: 5.0/1 |
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