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Сокращенный курс макроэкономической теории с использованием фундаментальных работ Зиновия Григорьевича Ватаманюка, Виктора Дмитриевича Базилевича, Валерия Александровича Васильева, Кемпбелла Р. Макконелла и Стенли Л. Брю


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Главная » Статьи » Информационное обеспечение дистанционного обучения » МАКРОЭКОНОМИКА/ ECONOMICS - лекции

Combined demand and combined supplies - 2 part

When costs on unit of products change under act of certain factors, except for changes in a national production volume, all of firms, together, change a national production volume which they make at this standard of prices. So, for example, increase in the supply of internal resources due to opening of deposits of minerals (earth), growth of labour force as a result of bringing in of women and emigrants from other countries (labour), brings replacements over of out-of-date equipment (capital) and presence of enough body of enterprising people (enterprise ability) to the decline of costs on these resources and increases an aggregate supply. In an analogical result a price-cutting results on the imported resources. Domination of monopolistic structures and strong trade unions can result in establishment at the resource market of prices, exceeding competition, that will define the increase of costs of producers and reduction of aggregate supply in future. The productivity is in reverse dependence on production inputs, consequently growth of the productivity will result in an increase in an aggregate supply. Growth of taxes and government control, vice versa, brake business activity and abbreviate an aggregate supply. The change of foregoing factors with a reverse sign results in opposite results.

Keyns's approach marks that prices and ettlings are inflexible and slowly change after changes in correlation of demand and supply, and that is why a curve of AS is horizontal. A macroeconomic equilibrium can be arrived at far to the left of natural production volume, that considerable part of labour force will be forcedly inactive. At the same time a correct macroeconomic policy can stimulate growth of economy and support necessary national production volumes and level of employment.

By the way, English economist John Meynard Keynes is considered the founder of modern macroeconomics. In 1935 George Bernard Shou got a letter from John Meynarda Keynes which Keynes noticed in: "It seems to me, I write book on an economic theory which will accomplish revolution in going near economic problems". Indeed, a book of Keynes is the "General theory of employment, percent and money" (1936) accomplished revolution in the analysis of economy and did Keynes one of the most brilliant and influential economists of all of times. Keynes was the son of the known English economist. He got education in Itone and Cambridge. At first he was interested by mathematics and theory of chances, but eventually he was commuted on an economy, Keynes was not only an economist. He was an incredibly active, multilateral man which executed various functions. He was the main representative of the Britannic treasury at Parisian peace conference and in the first world war-time, Glad the deputy of chancellor of treasury, councilor directors of the English bank, member of board of trustees of the National gallery, chairman of Advices from support of music and arts in the Royal college, headed the magazines of "Neyshn" and "New statesmen", and also National society a treasurer, editor of the Cambridge "Economic magazine", on life-insurance. In addition, he was such, which manages an investment company, organized the ballet troupe of Kamargo (his wife Lidiya Lopokova was the famous star of Russian emperor's ballet) and built (not without a benefit on your own) an artistic theater in Cambridge.

In addition, Keynes made time, to make the personal riches in 2 million dol. by a game on an exchange and commodity stock. He was the also leading figure of "Blumberg of group" which stood at the head of vanguard elite and rendered enormous influence on artistic and literary tastes in England. But the major consists in that Keynes was a scalene scientist. In the books he examines such wide circle of problems, as problems of theory of chances, monetary economy and consequence of peaceful agreement, prisoner after the first world war. However much his (magnum opus) main labour  is the afore-mentioned "General theory" which John Kenneth Gelbreyt at one time wrote about, that "it is absolutely unclear, badly written and prematurely published". Nevertheless in the "General theory" claim of economists of classic school is convincingly criticized that the cutback of economic activity can self cured. Keynes asserted that in the capitalist system there is not an automatic mechanism, able to bring it over to full employment. An economy can long remain in a state of depression and poverty. Actually, mass unemployment during overcoming the whole world of depression of 1930th is sufficient empiric evidence of rightness of Keynes. His basic recommendation a government, staggering all at that time, consisted of that it must loosen the holds, to stimulate a production and return unemployed persons into workings places.

Additional stroke to the problems of efficiency of capital investments in the economy  of Ukraine: notes of 2005  of academician AES Ukraine of Valery Vasiljev, author of Law of Preservation of Labour

In 2005 the most serious step is carried out to future prosperity of the state, namely, the rare is created on the attractiveness and validity PRECEDENT - privatization of metallurgical combine is carried out «KrivorozhSteel» (!).

And  it    is a not slogan,   and    pre-election  not step,   but indeed  the deeply  grounded economic initiative, advantageous practically all of layers of population, to participating in a production and distributing (see Document 213 on <http://www.cic-wsc.org> ).

We practically yet till recently in Ukraine and Russian Federation how hardly not with fists attacked on any real innovation on the production, because  it compelled someone and to do something, and all of these additional expenses of labour and nerves was paid never and nobody (for «accounting» valid for one occasion insignificant bonuses which it is necessary it was to be «divided» were given). About what competitiveness it is possible at such relation to talk (!).

And  today  for  93%  actions  $ 4,8 milliards are paid     "India -born  Lakshmi Mittal". We will endeavor  to estimate,   coming  from the present  opened  information,   validity of the paid sum. We utilize methodology of Great British - Sir William Petti, which we with success applied practically 70th and 80th throughout the year of XX st.

So at a cost 93% actions $ 4,8 milliards an overall balance cost taking into account 7% actions of the state will make $ 5,150  milliards,   including,   coming  from the practice folded  in  black metallurgy of Ukraine, circulating assets will make $ 0,770 milliards orientation. Therefore capital assets can be estimated in $ 4,38 milliards.

During    normal    organization    of production   return of funds in    black   metallurgy is 0,8. Consequently a production volume must be at the level of  $ 3,5 milliard. We will check up this number and will endeavor to specify it. So power of MK «KrivorozhSteel» on the estimations of specialists on being in an end 2005 made 7 million tons steel and the 7,8 million tons of cast-iron became.

At the expense coefficient of liquid cast-iron on a production became 0,8 export capacities of MK «KrivorozhSteel» will be made the 2,2 million tons of cast-iron and became by 7 million tons  steel (7,8 - 7x0,8).

If to accept the cost of ton became at level    $ 440, as Russian Federation sells steel, and cost of ton of cast-iron at level  $ 240, as on the average cast-iron will be realized in the world market, the cost of general volume of the products realized in a year will make:

7 000 000 x $ 440 + 2 200 000 x $ 240 =  $ 3,608 milliards ;

As  the real   coefficient  of return of funds is visible  on  MK  «KrivorozhSteeal»  appeared a few higher average for the metallurgists of East Europe.

We will define the term of recoupment of realizable "India -born Lakshmi Mittal" of financial expenses. We must know for this purpose, even orientation sum of depreciation and income on results work for a year. On   operating   norms  will present   the calculation   of depreciation   decrees   in the following kind:



Group of funds

Name (setting)


Stake             in general


 Depreciation decrees

Depreciation decrees


mln $ USA

Norma, %

Sum mln $USA


product. funds






buildings, buildings






motor transport, vychisl. and service equipment






transmission equipment, machines and equipment






Источник: http://kumpan-muller.ucoz.de/publ/prilozhenie_k_lekcii_sovokupnyj_spros_i_sovokupnoe_predlozhenie/7
Категория: МАКРОЭКОНОМИКА/ ECONOMICS - лекции | Добавил: Vasiljev (2009-09-29) | Автор: Vasiljev Alexander
Просмотров: 1873 | Теги: India -born Lakshmi Mittal, Dr Valery Vasiljev, Keyns's approach, MK «KrivorozhSteel» | Рейтинг: 5.0/1 |
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