Modern ethics in Europe.
We are talking right now early twenty-first century the conclusion that there is in society bourgeois capitalist ethics, does not work in a global economy, there is an economic crisis worldwide, but so far this century emerging countries as China, India and Brazil in these countries. It is emerging now, a new middle class and we're not talking about small segments of the population, we are talking about millions of people now have an income that allows them to enter the consumer goods.
This has created a totally new conflicts in the markets, also having a new form of distribution. Economic and political power is shifting to the East, China will assume worldwide, a new way of understanding business. We just have to see it in our country Spain (In every corner of the neighborhood, there is a shop retailing the leading people of Chinese ethnicity, if not the corner bar, it takes a family of the same nationality) This implies that these people are taking advantage of economic nests that the natives do not use, besides have their own funding sources, capital is Chinese and pay touches tile, that means they do not pay tax traffic exchange and it is not very While the volume you have. It's almost an underground economy, yet it generates wealth in the area where it is. Contribute goods such as computers, tools and low cost products, which are more sensitive and cheaper than the national economy expanding its use in the market itself.
What I have told you, is just one example more changes are coming and we have to have to adapt. The borders are not now or in the Pyrenees on the coast or in the fences, borders are now on the roads, natural or cultural.
For two hundred years Europe domino in economics, communication and culture imposed worldwide and so we follow the Chinese example, China opened to the world with war and the Boxer Opium War opened China to the world. This is when they start cultural differences: China is unable to embrace change, entering a time of confusion and civil war and yet Japan which opened a little earlier, saw his dominant estates I saw that you had to make a change and if they wanted to remain independent had to learn to dominate Western art; the advantage of Japan, was that before the Meiji era already had a bourgeoisie that gave good stability, a feudal ERAD happened at the end of the industrial revolution, in three generations: grandparents, children, grandchildren. That was a whole new re-structuring of the Japanese culture. However Japan maintained their way of being, I made the painting and enter Orienta culture in Europe, not only with cups of tea, painters, sculptors, designers, architects and drink from this source and some things we do not miss much , are on very small details but they do the most beautiful and pleasant things, was the first global intercultural movement in two directions.
The difference in Europe
If we look at European history, we see immediately that this area of the world, has been in perpetual motion, if we compare the histories of Europe with Asia, Africa or America, we see the acceleration is in Europe, while the rest of the world changes They are politicians, who appear and disappear empires, dynastic changes and large population displacements or when famine. It also occurs in Europe. The economy remains subsistence, as in the rest of the world. However there is a difference, try to find out for a long time the reason for this difference, because markets and production continued as in the rest of the world (almost).
The difference is that in Europe and in the Greco-Roman world, there was a difference and that difference is the miracle of the Roman roads, that made that could make a quick exchange between regions of Europe staff, goods and ideas. So the fall of the Roman Empire, which takes advantage of these facilities, the church became the refuge of culture, Christianity was because I take these works to expand and conquer Europe. I would note here, one thing I do not know if you've ever thought, but I suspect that any author has said otherwise. I want to emphasize that at each change in the forms of communication, there arises a new world of personalities, as well as a new social ethic. Each technical change brings a new change and a new way of looking at society and ethics at the time. The relationship is as follows, Latino Greek world, there are gods and their writers Canton, Cicero, Seneca and others. Begin to enter the barbarians and in turn the patristic, in which the church fathers say that we should abandon the world and prepare for the final judgment comes. St. Paul and the evangelists, announce the good news of the Kingdom of God and despite the mess of barbarian invasions San Agustin writes The City of God.
During the Middle Ages, the network of monasteries, bishoprics, monasteries and the papacy itself, continue to function using those same calzaras. They are the cultural support of Europe, from Ireland to Aachen via Rome, Jerusalem.
As time passes, circa 1000, that world is slowly changing. Arise early bourgeois cities, the first political institutions, kings give privileges and laws, and organize the territory, which will enable the nations of Europe possible. But these political level, there is growing support in the cities and emerging growth. Universities in those cities arise and there is a new way of seeing the world and its ethics. Thomas Aquinas is a good example.
The volume of economic exchange of cities increases more and more and in turn, markets are created with their privileges. Cities create their protection system and its regulations. Everything was controlled in a very organic way. People keep changing.
Thus we come to the birth of modern nations. In parts of Europe, the idea of nation that revolves around a monarchy arises. The example in France, England, Aragon, Castile, and Portugal, with its area of influence and a different language. In this period, we see the birth of bourgeois morality and the idea of an ethical product and capital. Bankers were Italian and Helvetica cities and give Hansas and circulate money, these bourgeoisies. Kings borrow for its castle, courts and military campaigns. Writers are Machiavelli, William Occan, Francisco de Vitoria, seeking justification for the expansion of the bourgeoisie and the Prince as Chief of Civil Affairs for God
The foot on the accelerator
For European. Arises at the time of printing and buying the most read books are the traders who had information and preparation for use. From this moment the trade is the engine of Europe. With fuel cells which marked the discovery of America by Columbus, with populations living in the stone ERAD. Sometimes it is better to err. As a European I reckon it was a unique opportunity. And we had boats, with an infrastructure to make and keep, Think about what you need to do to make it without the help of machines and very few were literate. Think of Seville, Antwerp, London. Is long-distance trade and the site has not had maps. Juan house is an example of ethical thought of that time.
Illustration Europe prepares to enter the Modern times.
The illustration not only meant a change in depth in the development of the territory, was a rational use of the resources of the kingdom. FRANCOIS QUESNAY, especially Adam Smith, in the Wealth of Nations, the key to social welfare is economic growth, which is enhanced through the division of labor: a new science, the economy emerges. The division of labor, in turn, deepens as the extension of markets and thus expands expertise. The Wealth of Nations, the key to social welfare is economic growth, which is enhanced through the division of labor. The division of labor, in turn, deepens as the extension of markets expands and therefore specialization. A special feature of his thought is the claim that, thanks to the appeal to the selfishness of individuals overall wellness is achieved. However, there are passages in The Wealth of Nations, much of this work as in other texts speaking of moral sentiments makes clear that empathy with the selfishness of others and recognizing their needs is the best way to meet the needs own. Sprout early writers economists, seeking solutions to the various problems that exist. Market pressure is awesome, everyone uses new things and more consumer goods. Thus it was found that the production systems that guilds were overwhelmed to meet production that they demanded. You had to break a bottleneck in production, and so long as Europe left the illustration with the French Revolution, in England, during the same period, created another parallel evolution but is in industrial and technical, with cotton, iron in large productions and rail. Charles Dickens is very representative of the time ethics and moral contradictions.
The industrial evolution, which began in England, was a form of mass production, creating two new classes. The capitalists and the proletariat that will drive modern history. These two classes are the backbone of the European empires. To maintain production, we had to expand markets and spheres of influence. England had a navy, first class, business did the seas. France, with its magnificent Bourbon government, then formed by Napoleon and the centrality of Paris, created an economy with very conservative bourgeoisie, being a model for the rest of Europe. America with its great expansion into the western territories, capitalism and created his own production system.
The rest of the country is on the same wavelength, but with so many opportunities and more conflict, to remain in its territory, archaic structures. Behind all this there were two things, an impressive market of consumer goods and some rail lines that span the country and if not, expand the colonies: the pattern was political dominance, market dominance and guide communication to carry goods and people, new places.
America emerged as a nation and also the different Latin American nationalities (America for Americans is a motto) is still a reality, isolating these countries. The railroad was the backbone of modern American capitalism, when the sailors of England controlling the seas, were France and Germany. Ethics is almost Calvinist, fully nationalist, two new countries in Europe, Italy and Germany arises. Ethics and contradictions of the moment creates a new cultural genre, the modern novel, with its main character "man in his nakedness to fate." Each of the countries of Europe, have a wealth of writers, who try this Actually. The greatest example is Leo Tolstoy can be said to be the creator of modern ethics. It is incredibly modern. It is their journals, essays, talks to retrieve values that are missing, saying that politics has lost all north, putting the finger on it, saying that protects vested interests and fortunes of time. He says, to be recovered Christian values, defend nature, the simple life and especially avoid such damage.
It is the propellant of nonviolence. At the end of his life, despite being removed in the field and watched the Tsarist regime fell, he received correspondence from around the world and wrote in his own hand on vital issues. Corresponded with all kinds of people from socialism, through spiritualist groups to influence Gandhi, mediating creating movement of nonviolence and civil disobedience, was a model for many people of the time. Which has been silenced by the media and is partially known.
But Europe's energies were misdirected, had an ethical and political blindness. The press was then more radical partisan now. At the beginning of the twentieth century were not aware of it at hand and gave solutions to problems answers sixty or a hundred years old, it was ethical political party or class interests. Compounded this by a real lack of a sense of political democracy, the citizens of a country own.
The technique dominated Europe, but Europe did not want to look at what happened in America. American War of Succession, in the massacres of those battles, civilians and the soldiers saw that modern war is an ugly business; if not vile. This created a total rejection of the war among Americans. While in Europe, all flags and uniforms were in the United States, both the people and their politicians were. The last thing they thought. The first war that the United States had, after the Succession was against Spain, Cuba and the Philippines independence and the American administration and the Senate saw it as a limited war, acting professionals and marine to end Spanish colonialism.
That was the first modern war attitude.
Europe did not do that. The murder of the Crown Prince of Austria in Sarajevo, a marginal thing on a local site, due to diplomatic alliances and empires, led to a major catastrophe. They said (that would be a war in the summer and as a football game, all expire) But we all know what happened, a huge tragedy that spanned the entire globe. Given the technical and selfishness, we all stand naked and defenseless. It seems incredible that when the film Kubrin, glory days, opened in France was forbidden until the eighties, because of the image that was on the French military and now we are celebrating the centenary of this war, we are seeing the error was collective, there was no innocent. It was not just the pain and death is that nations that had lost up to thirty-five percent of ipc. And I'm talking about, that there were villages that were without arms work, because most of the men had perished in the war.
The Congress of Versailles, in which the victorious powers, which were distributed on the globe, and to dismember the Austro-Hungarian Empire, made the emergence of new countries in Europe. Surge Estonia, Slovenia, Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia. It was something that brutal northern suburb south of Europe and left unsatisfied all nationalities, creating more conflict and greater complication United States entered into an isolationist period. President Wilson after creating the League of shares as a means of arbitration and conflict resolution, unable to support the institution, all did, that the League of Nations and Congress,
will stay dead letter.
This made it more difficult international coexistence and lets not forget that Russia was immense in their own socialist revolution. All bourgeoisie and right-wing parties, radicalized its discourse and its behavior. Europe went through a period of total chaos, it became even more difficult coexistence between Europeans. Everyone wanted to revert to the old ways of doing things, but all I did was lift boundaries and disorder. If Europe does not go into a revolution or a near-civil war, was the understanding that was between English and French. There was no joint projects and nations that had emerged later, such as Germany and Italy, which were also the most modern and politically weaker industrialized Europe entered a radical nationalist discourse by defending power. At this time there are still people who give the alarm and try to reconstruct ideas and new forms. But the crisis of 1929 that affected the entire world economy, froze all new initiative.
The Second World War, is a consequence of the first and of the ideological and economic crisis in Europe. Germany with Hitler, entering an arms race that leads directly to the second world war. All of Europe fell under Nazi rule and only thanks to the brave resistance of England and the political wisdom of Stalin, Europe stand until they entered the United States at war with Japan.
In the various conferences that took, Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin, which were very clear. The first priority was to defeat the forces of evil, Germany, and this time there would not surrender, and the German territory to be conquered, taken to the last square.
But while there was talk of ending the war, he was talking about creating a new order for Europe and Europe try to enter an era of stability and economic recovery. Three new things were created, the NATO treaty, all countries had to be democratic, with equal parliaments and voting systems. That's the financial support of the Marshall Plan, the economy stabilized and made possible the European growth. Likewise, Germany and France, creating community for coal and steel, which was the germ of the European common market. The rest is recent history. As the Iron Curtain in Russia. Existentialism, psychoanalysis, or the various avant-garde with its reductionism and solutions.
Europe modernized, modern democracies and a new ethic and a way of life emerged were created. For the first time Europeans were free and their rights would be respected, the ideas of democracy entered the parliaments and parties. Emerged modern social securities, which protected large sections of society and education also spread, people arriving at the time of consumption. This, we opened the world of immigration and the market became global, things that did not exist or were beyond our horizon, are now accessible. Traveling more, internet makes communication is instantaneous and almost free. Today, almost no distances and that the same book is being read in places as diverse as Spain, Mongolia, New Zealand or New York and that these same people are exchanging notes and comments between them. That was unthinkable until recently, but it also created new habits along and ethical conduct. And communications between individuals and are thought flowing between them.
All human beings, we like to enjoy and understand us, give love and receive love and whenever we want more. But why freedom, love and understanding emerge, grow and develop, we must also do something else? Lose the fear and know that the neighbor and fellow or immigrant who comes to our country, it is equally important to us. There is no political behavior, this is not politics, this is fur and skin, our skin and neighbor, is not made for the hurt, is to be stroked and smile looking at the eyes, and this has to start within us. Evil is always free, always the good work. A job well done, benefits us and who receives it. Since we have freely chosen to do so.
The conclusion that there is now, right now in 2014, we are creating many difficulties. But if I've learned anything, it's that behind every problem or difficulty, there is also an opportunity and a new thing. Maybe now we can not see, but first we are aware that we are in a balloon, mother earth and the beings that inhabit it, deserve all our respect and understanding.
In the same way that the Internet and new media convey ideas, we are more numerous, "NOW" we have more information we are smarter and are more realistic. Ethics without economics without justice is a mockery to society, the French Revolution was a breakthrough ... But not push for democracy among its citizens. DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICE ECOMOMIA, must be embraced, without leaving holes where hatred and violence grow.
We learned that violence begets violence. The violence is the resort of the weak. Why not stick and damage stronger one, if not someone else helpless and weak.
I'm almost certain that future revolutions, I will not be violent. I know it is a utopian today, but will eventually be a reality. It is more economical dialogue, to throw stones.
If Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, just the will ... An isolated man from a prison cell and manages to create the miracle of South Africa, think what good it can bring us the future. If we work for it.
Ecology is the new ethic. Covering all because we're in the same boat.
Ethics is to come, will be the responsibility, love, I think the best speech you said no one Galileo, with the speech beginning with the words:
"Blessed are ..."
"Sermon on the Mount".....
But these words, they have to cover not only human beings, have to embrace life.
Zaragoza (Spain) 14 July 2014