Short maintenance and appendixes to the lecture «Macroeconomics as science» (compendium of «Economics» Campbell R. McConnell & Stanley L. Brue and additions)
«Ideas of economists and political thinkers - and when they are right, and when wrong - have much more value, what it is accepted to think. In actual fact exactly they and govern the world. People practices which consider itself quite unsubject to intellectual influences usually are the slaves of some economist of the pas» (Keynes Jon. M. General theory of employment, percent and money of / Translate from angl. M., 1978. p . 458).
The task of economic theory or analysis consists in that, to drive to the system, interpret and generalize facts. «A theory without facts can be empty, but facts without a theory are senseless» (Kenneth E. Boulding. Economic Analysis: Microeconomics. 4th ed. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Incorporated, 1966. P.5).
Campbell R. Mcconnell and Stanley L. Brue examine concepts «laws», «principles», «theories» and «models» - as synonyms. And the choice of term for denotation of some concrete generalization was dictated for them habit or expedience. Therefore, for example, Law of Preservation of Labour, as statistically confirmed preservation of amount of the materialized and living labour at unchanging technology of production and insignificant innovative decisions at producing goods or services without the change of high-quality indexes, from their position - to examine generalizations or establishment of conformities to the law in the economic conduct of individuals and institutes, it is possible to describe as a model - and, exactly, abstract generalization of actual conduct of the proper statistical information. And in this case, and with possibility subsequent extrapolations of its character far outside the economic system.
By the specific task of macroeconomics, unlike mezoeconomics and megaeconomics, there is cognition, systematization and generalization of processes which determine mechanism of functioning of national economy on the whole.
Actually positive macroeconomics studies that is, while normative macroeconomics expresses the subjective pictures of that must be.
Examining subjects of macro-analyze are a sector of household, enterprise sector, state sector and oversea sector, we put before itself achievement of the followings aims:
1. Economy growing - providing is desirable greater production of commodities and services of the best quality, and on Campbell R. McConnell and Stanley L. Brue - more high level lives.
2. Full employment is providing to all, who wants and able to work suitable employment.
3. Economic efficiency is a receipt of maximal return at minimum costs at the use of the limited production resources.
4. Stable standard of prices - avoiding a considerable increase or decline of general standard of prices (inflations and deflations).
5. Economic freedom - managers, workers and users, possess the high degree of freedom in the economic activity.
6. Just allocation of profits - that not a single group of citizens was in complete poverty, when other citizens bath in a luxury.
7. Economic material well-being - providing is implied of existence chronically of patients, disabled, incompetent, aged or other requiring a help.
8. Balance of trade - aspiring to maintenance of reasonable balance of international trade and international financial transactions.
Macroeconomics utilizes the wide spectrum of methods, namely:
economic-mathematical design but other
An analysis is a method of research which a research object is decompounded at, each of which is studied separately.
A synthesis is a research method which is based on combination of different elements, sides of object in the unique unit taking into account intercommunications between them.
An analysis and synthesis, as research methods, is used in unity.
Induction is motion of idea from concrete to universal, from knowledge of lower degree to knowledge of high degree.
Deduction is motion of idea from universal to single.
Combination of methods of induction - deductions are provided by connection single, special and universal.
A method of scientific abstraction is a method of deep cognition of the real economic processes by the selection of basic, most substantial sides of the certain phenomenon and cleaning of him from all of unimportant, casual.
The basic method of macroeconomic research is a economic-mathematical design.
MACROECONOMIC MODELS: ESSENCE STAND MODELS
MACROECONOMIC MODELS are mathematical equalizations in which the expressed is real economic processes in an abstract and simplified kind.
To create a model is means to find a function which links endogenous and exogenous variable macro-models.
Endogenous variables are sizes which are determined as a result of decision of model (for example: size of the real national income, level of employment, level of the real wage, the rate of percent is real, standard of prices).
Exogenous variables are sizes which are out of macro-model (as a rule, it is technology of production, pattern of behavior of economic subjects on each of markets, rate of taxation (Т), government spending (G), size of suggestion of money (M5)).
Often in macroeconomic models utilize other classification of economic variables, which is related to the method of measuring them in time.
The variables of supply are measured only in concrete moment of time and characterize the state of research object upon the certain date - began or end of year etc. (For example: a national debt, volume of capital, is in an economy and etc).
The variables of stream characterize an economic process which takes a place continuous and measured in units on the certain period of time (volume of investments on a year, size of consumer charges on a year).
The simple model of circular streams is based on the analysis of co-operation only of two macroeconomic subjects - to the sector of households and enterprise a sector - and eliminates influence state a sector and sector foreign on an economy of country.
Charges enterprise a sector on resources simultaneously is the streams of profits of households (ettlings, rent, other profits).
Stream of consumer charges of households forms the profits of firms from realization of the prepared products.
Streams «profits are charges» (money stream) and «resources - products» (real stream) take a place simultaneously in opposite directions and repeat oneself infinitely.
Conclusion: the total sales firms equals the total size of profits of households. That, for the closed model of economy in which influence of the state is not taken into account on economic processes, the size of general production volume in the money measuring equals the total size of money profits of households.
Macroeconomics as science executes such functions:
1. Theoretical - cognitive (gnosiological), maintenance of which consists in cognition of the economic phenomena, processes and conduct of macroeconomic subjects and creation of theoretical models, proper research objects;
2. Practical, maintenance of which consists in development of practical recommendations on the basis of economic analysis. This function will be realized above all things in development of economic policy of the state. In addition, the theory of macroeconomics is utilized in the practical activity by households, firms and oversea world;
3. Prognosis, which consists in the estimation of the economic state of affairs and foresight of prospects of economic development countries;
4. Educate and world view. There is an economic order in society forms the proper type of economic thought and original world view.
Additional stroke to the problems of understanding of problems of economy of Ukraine: notes of 2006 of academician AES Ukraine of Valery Vasiljev, author of Law of Preservation of Labour
Modern economic science in the development must to lean on the basic laws of the universe, essence of which shows up in philosophical, sociological, theology, historical and ethnic, psychological sciences. It is necessary to consider finding of objective factors and criteria which will provide creation of the maximal blessings people the major task of economists, sociologists, psychologists and political scientists, in accordance with volumes and structure of national riches of one or another region.
On the whole national riches of the world, on expert estimations, on beginning of XXI of age consisted of 64 % human capital, 16% financial capital and 20% natural capital.
Naturally, that structure of national riches for every region there is the own and in order that the population of region was got by the optimum amount of blessings reliable information is needed on the necessities of markets of sale of commodities and services, producible in a region, suppliers of the entered factors of production. Thus, than completer and more reliable there will be these information, the more successful the national economy of region will develop and completer satisfied the necessity of people, inhabiting a region.
To the present tense the proper institutes do not provide exhaustive information about necessities and possibilities of structural subdivisions of folk-economic complex one or another region. Very often a veritable picture shows up after the far of tests and errors, originative down streams, sometimes crises, that is instrumental in the origin of the armed conflicts and inwardly-regional disturbances.
Especially, large harm in development of national economy of some regions is felt from the unprepared transition of economy to to by nothing to the not regulated market relations.
The economy of country belongs to the number the difficult systems, characterized multiplicity of constituents of its elements, (by a hierarchy) hierarchicalness, by many levels structuralness.
The economic system of country must have a general goal which must come forward as motive force of its development. Into the system must have a right on existence the isolated sectors - are subsystems, possessing specific descriptions, but, nevertheless, inferiors of organizing purpose of the system on the whole.
On the whole efficiency of the economic system of country is estimated the general volume of gross internal product (GDP), by the made GDP per capita, by profitability of the made product, profitability of production and (fondootdachey) by products by the cost made funds one monetary item.
Profits, created on production enterprises intermediary, point-of-sale, financial organizations are the source of the government and non-state spending. The principal items of the government spending as early as a 17 age were described by Great England William Petty:
Facilities for redemption of the above-stated charges appear due to taxation all three constituents of riches of country: human, material and natural.
Most ponderable is labour of man, absorptive in itself both anthropological factors and intellectual capabilities, other words manual and mental labour.
It was considered in a past century, that it is possible in an identical measure to teach any man. However, as experience of countries testifies the systematic increase of intellectual level of population creates the terms of considerable increase of high-quality and quantitative indexes. So the most high level of the productivity labour in combination with high quality of products productivity is observed in countries, where practically all of workers have higher education, and basic production workers yet and after institute preparation.
Naturally, the necessities of man increase with the increase of intellectual level. What higher intellect, the higher and more various necessities, both physical and spiritual.
Growth of intellectual potential is attended with growth of expenses of society on teaching, creation of cultural, sporting, research and scientific subdivisions.
Carried out in the whole world more high level of payment of labour of intellectual part of society requires adequate more high level taxations.
In many countries an income-tax on physical persons is differentiated with the use of step scale, that creates possibility of manipulation for the insignificant decline of tax rate.
In our way to opinion, it is necessary in place of step scale to enter a tax rate determination of which will be carried out by nomogrammy or on dependence of the following dependences (kind):
H = α + D-B ,
Where: H - is a tax rate, % from a wage level;
α- permanent, characterizing a without tax interval;
D - is a profit in monetary items;
B - is an index of degree characterizing type of curve.
The second object of taxation is an income (additional product). A tax rate must be differentiated depending on the level of profitability of labour (relation arrived to the sum of ettlings and extra charges in social funds: pension a fund, fund of social security, fund of employment, fund of payment of disability because of traumatism). Thus than higher index of profitability of labour, the higher there must be a tax rate.
Profits from a sale the own real estate must physical persons be assessed the differentiated tax with a minimum rate in 2% costs and maximal rate 10% costs.
The following object of taxation are material values - Capital production assets of 4th groups:
а) Passive funds: buildings, buildings, transmission devices are a 1 group.
б) Active funds with the term of service to 3th: motor transport, computing engineering, intercouplers, radio and TV- apparatus, equipment of food and point-of-sale enterprises, service equipment (refrigerators, conditioners, ventilators), furniture - 2 group.
в) Technological and power equipment, machine-tools and instrument, adaptations and rigging, laboratory equipment - 3 group.
1. Analyzing a dynamics post-war and after crisis development of row of the states, we came to the conclusion, that for providing of formation of optimum own investments and objective addition to the budget of the state, for a base it is necessary to accept depreciation decrees which must counted on an acquisition restoration cost, not dependency upon the term of service. From the lump sum of depreciation decrees 25% must enter budget of the state as a property tax. From a remaining sum 30% must be expended on repairs. Other part must enter growth of enterprise fund on a deposit (savings) account. Expense of facilities from this account on addition to the circulating assets, or on other needs, unconnected with development of enterprise, assessed a tax on the highest rate (arriving at in some countries 39%).
2. Capital unworkings production assets which depreciation decrees not counted must be assessed a tax no less than 10% their remaining cost (by restoration).
3. Unproductive funds, consisting also of 4th groups must be assessed a tax on the followings rates:
1) group of funds in size of a 2% acquisition balance restoration cost;
2) group of funds in size of a 7,5% acquisition balance restoration cost;
3) group of funds in size of a 5% acquisition balance restoration cost;
4) group of funds in size of a 10% acquisition balance restoration cost.
4. Circulating assets must be assessed 5% by a tax.
5. Natural resources and land rent must be assessed 5% by a tax in accordance with the cadastre estimation of the landed resources.
6. Private immovable property must be assessed the differentiated tax.
7. Capital, kept in safes, internal and external jars must be assessed a tax in size of a 70% bank registration rate.
Introduction of tax on circulating assets liquidates a tax value-added. A value added is an ettlings with extra charges in social funds and income. An ettlings is assessed an income-tax. An income is assessed an income tax. So, that a tax value-added actually is double taxation.